Ozone in Medicine: The Low-Dose Ozone Concept—Guidelines and Treatment Strategies.
Renate Viebahn-Hänsler,1 Olga Sonia León Fernández,2 and Ziad Fahmy1 1Medical Society for the Use of Ozone in Prevention and Therapy, Iffezheim/Baden-Baden, D-76473, Germany 2Pharmacy and Food Institute, University of Havana, Havana 10 400, Cuba
The low-dose ozone concept with its moderate oxidative stress represents an ideal hormesis strategy. Dose-response and concentration-effect relationships in the context with speciﬁc applications allow one to ﬁx concentration ranges with therapeutical beneﬁt. Based on the well-known reaction mechanisms of ozone, its biochemical and pharmacological effects, international guidelines have to be deﬁned concerning physiological and ozone resistant materials, indications, application sand the effective concentration and dosage range in dependence on the speciﬁc indications.
Following the international regulations of ozone concentrations outdoors and indoors, as working site concentrations by WHO (World Health Organization) and in conformance with the Medical Device Directives (MDD) for quality assurance and control, some European Medical Societies for the Use of Ozone have set up a draft for the essential requirements for the treatment procedures, including:
(a) production of Medical Ozone; reactivity of O3 and ozone-resistant materials;
(b) ozone-free surroundings (WHO regulations) by the integration of effective catalytic systems;
(c) ozone-resistant and physiologically indifferent materials used in disposables for MAH, intra-articular, intramuscular and other topical injections (for rectal insufﬂation, topical treatment as transcutanous gas bath and/or disinfection);
(d) medical device directives for safety of the patient;
(e) ozone measurement as requirement for concentrations and dosages; and,
(f) concentration, dosages, and treatment frequency are listed independence on the indication and disease as well as on the underlying mechanism of action.
When used in speciﬁc diseases and conditions, medical ozone produces the same or similar therapy results worldwide. Improper application in the form of erratic methods and dose sisthe most frequent cause of in effective ness and adverse effects—and is always the cause of violent controversies.
For this reason, the medical societies for ozone application have set up treatment protocols as basis for standards and guidelines, revised and published as a result of the most recent research and 30 years of experience (Beck et al. 1998; Knoch et al. 2009). They have been used in the standardization of applications, indications, concentrations, doses, and frequency of treatment as based on the mechanism of action and the pharmacology of ozone.